Types of Parenting Related to Bullying
Types of parenting related to bullying. One of the phenomena that attracts attention in the world of education today is the violence of schools committed by students.
The uprising (bullying) perpetrated by students in schools, which increasingly adorns the rows of news on the pages of print and electronic media, is proof that human values have been uprooted.
Bullying behavior, an old phenomenon, has recently become an interesting research study in education over the last ten years, systematic research on the topic began in the 1970s and is limited to Scandinavian countries (Olweus, 2002).
Yet, within two decades, many countries (e.g., Japan, the UK, Canada, the US) began to study bullying behavior in schools. In particular, what is interesting here has been triggered by the occurrence of violence in schools around the world (Mc Everyern et. Al., 2005).
Bullying behavior is a negative action repeated by some or more students who attack because of an imbalance of power between the parties involved. Examples of bullying include teasing, spreading gossip, inciting, isolating, intimidating, threatening, bullying, shouting or physically attacking such as pushing, slapping, or hitting.
Bullying can be defined as a recurring emotional, verbal, and / or physical attack
against students and other vulnerable students who are truly unable to defend themselves because of their size and strength.
Bullying implies a power imbalance that usually occurs without provocation. Along with physical and verbal abuse, these can also include bullying, spreading rumors, theft, tripping, destruction of other people’s property, sexual harassment, danger due to sexual orientation, race, or ethnicity (Sampson, 2002).
Studies conducted in various countries show that 8-38% of students are bullied. Chronic victims of bullying, bullied once a week or more, generally make up 8-20% of the student population. A recent study in the United States found that bullying rates are higher in America than in some other countries.
13% of grade six to ten students, 10% report bullying, and about 6% fall victim (Sampson, 2002). Olweus (2002) studied 140,000 Norwegian children between the ages of 8 and 16, finding that about 15% of them were bullied.
The results of a study by bullying intervention expert Dr. Army Huneck at Yayasan Semai Jiwa Amini 2008 revealed that 10-60% of students are reported to be teased, ridiculed, ostracized, beaten, kicked or pushed at least once a week.
Riauskina (2005) in Wiyani (2012) then classifies bullying behavior into five categories, including:
- Direct physical contact (hitting, pushing, biting, grabbing, kicking, locking someone in a room, pinching, scratching, blackmailing, and breaking other people’s belongings).
- Direct verbal contact (threatening, insulting, demeaning, harassing, calling (calling names), putting up, criticizing / mocking, intimidating, slandering, and spreading gossip).
- Nonverbal direct behavior (looking sarcastic, sticking out tongue, showing insulting, mocking or threatening facial expressions is usually accompanied by physical or verbal bullying)
- Indirect nonverbal behavior (silencing someone, manipulating friendships to crack, deliberately isolating and ignoring, sending anonymous letters)
- Sexual harassment (sometimes categorized as physical or verbal aggressive behavior) Olweus (1994) revealed in Mc Eacern et al (2005) that bullying in schools seems to be the school climate, school policy and student supervision contribute to the frequency of bullying in schools everywhere certain schools. .
- Family socioeconomic status.
- Level of parental education.
- Family composition (closeness / divorce / remarriage)
- Parenting style.
Parenting is a pattern of interaction between parents and children, that is, how parents’ attitudes or behaviors when interacting with children, including how to apply rules, teach values / norms, pay attention and love and show good attitudes and behaviors so that they become role models for their children (Dariyo, 2004).
Adolescent socialization is strongly influenced by the parenting style of parents in the family, including the following:
- The authoritarian attitude of the parents (wanting to win alone, always controlling, all orders must be obeyed regardless of the opinion and wishes of the child) will greatly influence the development of adolescent personality. He will develop into a coward, less confident, feel worthless, so that the socialization process is disrupted.
- The permissive attitude of parents (all-permitted, never forbidding, always obeying the wishes of the child, always pampering) will foster an attitude of dependence and difficulty in adapting to the social environment outside the family.
- The attitude of parents who always compare their children will foster unhealthy competition and mutual suspicion between siblings.
- The attitude of parents who are ambitious and overly demanding of their children will cause the child to tend to experience frustration, fear of failure, and feel worthless.
- The democratic attitude of parents, will follow the existence of children as individuals and social beings, and be willing to listen and respect the opinions of children. This condition will create a balance between individual and social development, so that the child will get a healthy mental state.
Students identified as bullies were 1.65 times more likely to be seen in children from families with authoritarian parents than in participatory parenting. Punishing / overly disciplined parenting also causes children to have bullying behaviors.
Experts, both Piaget and Kohlberg agree that parents play a key role in the formation and moral development of a child. The responsibility of parents to instill moral values, ethics, manners and even religious values from an early age to their children will leave an impact on their hearts and souls.
John Locke equates that the heart and brain of a child is still a blank piece of paper. The sheet is still sacred, so whatever is on the sheet depends very much on the parents how he writes, draws, draws or colors, as well as the education he has received since childhood will influence the thoughts and behaviors of the child (Dariyo, 2004) .
Hironimus Sugi of Plan International concluded that cases of violence against children in schools ranked second after violence against children in the family. In fact, if students are often victims of violence, they may have a difficult character in the future.
This will collectively have a negative impact on the life of the country (Wiyani, 2012). Child bullies have the potential and tend to be juvenile delinquents, and perpetrators of violence and trapped in criminal acts. The perpetrator of bullying will also have difficulties in social relationships and if this behavior occurs until adulthood, of course it will have a very wide impact.
Students who watch are also potentially disruptive. Consequences of bullying practices that occur at the primary school level, which can eventually lead to death. The death of this primary school student was triggered by insecurity and frustration because his schoolmates were often ridiculed as porridge boys.
Olweus’ latest research (2011) on bullying is reported as a crime in Sweden. This study aims to find out the types of parenting styles related to bullying in high school.
Another theory on educational factors is also put forward by Hibana (2002), namely that parents who have received higher education will have good knowledge in caring for their children so that they will use more democratic parenting techniques than uneducated parents and knowledge.
The educational background of parents can affect the thinking of parents, both formal and non-formal, and then also affect the aspirations or expectations of parents towards their children. Another thing that can be seen from the community of Semarang based on observations by researchers that can influence democratic parenting is the characteristics of a friendly and polite society.
Based on the researcher’s observations, students also have the characteristics of being friendly, polite and willing to cooperate in research and have good academic achievement. This can be seen from the charter-
charters obtained by students are displayed in the School living room.
experts state that violence in education can be caused by poor systems and policies in education, especially high school. Religious education plays an important role in controlling bullying behavior because religious education teaches good norms, morals and ethics.
Another thing that can be seen from the light bullying behavior committed by students in high school is the influence of democratic parenting felt by many students according to the results of the study based on the description of parenting style, as stated, one of the factors influencing adolescent behavior is old parenting style .
Based on the observations by the researchers, the students are friendly, polite and willing to cooperate in research and have good academic achievement. Descriptions of bullying behavior committed by students can be seen from the results of questionnaires that have been completed by students, that is, students will sometimes be violated by hitting or pushing if students feel threatened, students sometimes tease friends by locking them in the bathroom or room degrees, students sometimes feel jealous if a friend has something new, students sometimes like to mock a friend by calling their parents name.
The description of bullying behavior committed by students can be seen from the results of the questionnaire that has been completed by students, that is, students always fight by hitting or pushing friends if they feel threatened, students always tease friends by locking them in the bathroom or classroom, students always feel jealous when friends have new things, students always or often mock friends by calling their parents ‘names or nicknames, always or often stay away from friends if students do not like their friends, always talk about friends’ problems with other friends, always be friends and play with their friends only.