Parenting Style Effects on Child Psychology
Parenting style effects on child psychology. What role should parents play in a child’s physical and psychological development? A psychologist recommends that parents provide appropriate assistance.
Do you realize that every child has different behaviors and traits? Of course, the answer is definitely yes. You may realize that some children are confident, easy to get along with, and tend to behave well, but other children are shy, timid, and even naughty.
Why is there such a difference?
That is the question posed by Diana Baumrind, a developmental psychologist from the United States when she realized that preschool children at that time had different behaviors.
This question is also the basis of one of his studies. Baumrind’s (1967) research entitled Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior shows that differences in parenting styles provided by caregivers are the cause of differences in the behavior and nature of these preschool children.
In this study, Baumrind summarizes three types of care patterns/styles for caregivers. Sixteen years later, Baumrind’s theory was further developed by Maccoby & Martin (1983). The two scientists eventually divided parenting styles into four types. What are the four parenting styles?
Before we discuss the four parenting styles and their implications, we must first agree on a few things.
- Every parent must take care of their child in a certain way. Second, parents from one family certainly adopt a different parenting style.
- This is important to remember because of course the background of the parents, the way they were raised, or educational factors will also cause differences in parenting style for their children. Having agreed with these two points, let us discuss the types of parenting styles available.
The four parenting styles to be discussed are variations of two things, namely warmth, and control.
The term warmth is used to describe the warmth parents give to their children. The higher the level of warmth, the higher the warmth. The term control is used to describe the control given by parents to their children. Having understood this, we will be ready to discuss different types of parenting styles.
Four parenting styles according to Baumrind, Maccoby, and Martin have their impact on children’s development. Each parenting style has a different effect on other parenting styles. Children who come from different parenting styles have many differences in aspects of their lives (Santrock, 2018). Why is that? Here are some explanations.
Children from authoritative/authoritative parenting styles tend to grow into controlled, cheerful, and achievement-oriented children (Santrock, 2018).
Why is that?
1. Those who have authoritative parents consider themselves “valuable” (Cavel, Liem, Lustig, 2010). Another tendency is that they grow friendly and cooperate.
This is because they are used to two-way communication with their parents. Research by Carlo et al. (2017) found that children with this parenting style performed higher prosocial activities than other parenting styles.
Also, they tend to fall into deviant behaviors, such as aggression, violence, drug use, and drinking (Hoskins, 2014).
2. Children who are raised in an authoritarian/authoritarian manner tend to grow up well following the rules. How can that be? This is because children are accustomed to growing up in an environment that demands something.
In this case, their claim came from their parents. The skill in following these rules can be said to be quality, right? On the other hand, children are not accustomed to exploring and acting independently.
Therefore, they rarely learn to set limits and standards for themselves. In other words, it is the parents who set the standard. Children also tend to grow up to be unhappy, scared, and easily anxious.
They show inability and lack of courage in starting something, even have poor communication skills. This is influenced by the lack of parents who allow children to express their opinions in the family (Santrock, 2018). Moreover, they also tend to be aggressive (Burts et al., 2003) and have higher depressive symptoms than those of authoritative parents (King, Marianos, & Vidourek, 2016).
3. Development of children of parents who like to allow. Santrock (2018) explains that children from this parenting style grow up to be children with some negative traits, such as spoiled, egocentric, prone to disobedience, unable to respect others, and unable to control their behavior and desires.
These traits grow because children are accustomed to being pampered and their desires are easily fulfilled. All of these facilities make it impossible for children to develop the ability to strive for something, to be selfish, and to become accustomed to the needs of others, namely parents.
Research has found that they tend to develop deviant behavior (Hoskins, 2014) with a higher frequency of drug use, less motivated to school, and less engaged in positive-oriented activities (Eyberg, Queidom, & Warmer, 2002), and have academic achievement higher. lower when compared to authoritative or authoritarian parents (Hernawati, Latifah, & Theresya, 2018). They also tend to exhibit naughty and rude behavior during their adolescence (Santrock, 2018).
4. Children from parents who are not involved and do not care tend to grow up to be children with poor social skills. This is because children do not get love and warmth from their parents (Santrock, 2018).
Keep in mind, children’s communication skills first develop in the family. Parents with this parenting style do not provide warmth and rarely communicate with children, thus encouraging the development of communication skills.
Hoskins (2014) found that children from this parenting style do not have emotional intimacy with their parents. This can lead to the growth of deviant behavior in adolescence. Dubas et al (2009) found a link between these parenting styles and juvenile delinquency, such as vandalism, theft, assault, and even rape.
Children are also at twice the risk of smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages (Andrews et al., 2011). Also, when compared to the other three parenting styles, children tend to have lower levels of self-esteem and are more likely to experience depressive symptoms (Kehl et al., 2008; Brody et al., 2002).
Knowing a little about parenting style and its effects, we can conclude a little that the authoritative/authoritative parenting style has the most positive effect on children’s development. In line with the idea of Santrock (2018), in many respects, the children of authoritative parents have the best development compared to the other three parenting styles.
As a parent, or prospective parent, is there anything that can be done to maximize the child’s development through parenting style? In other words, how can parents, or prospective parents, be competent and children develop positively? Here are some ways in which this can be done.
1. Be friendly and supportive.
This encourages the development of children’s communication skills.
2. Try not to use body punishment as an attempt to discipline.
This is done so that the child does not develop into a fearful and aggressive person.
3. Make mistakes, teach and give understanding to children in a gentle way.
A 20-year study shows that there is a link between physical punishment and the aggression of children and adolescents at a later stage of life. The explanation is that the pain caused by the punishment of the body gives rise to the impulse to strike.
4. Involve children in family dynamics, both in making rules at home, as well as important family decisions.
This encourages children to learn to develop perspectives and hone their ability to work together. Finally, help children understand and manage their emotions. This will encourage children to learn self-regulation and reduce the tendency to develop depression in the future. (Eisenberg & Spinrad, 2016; Eisenberg, Spinrad, & Morris, 2013; Durant, & Ensom, 2012; Eisenberg & Valiente, 2002).
Having learned this method, perhaps the next question that arises is apart from parenting style, are there other factors influencing child development? Of course, the answer is yes. From the beginning, we have explored a bit about how important and vital parenting style is and how it can affect a child’s development. However, we must not assume that parenting style is the only determinant of child development. If so, what are the other factors besides parenting style?
The picture is quite concise. Two factors affect a child’s development, either directly or indirectly.
1. Biological factors
What is meant by biological factors are human heritage factors, such as genes, nutrition, and the pattern/lifestyle of the child? Environmental factors also play a huge role. The parenting style we discussed from the beginning includes environmental factors.
2. Environmental factors
Environmental factors also include things like culture, school environment, and peers. What the author wants to underline is that there is not a single factor influencing a child’s development. These factors simultaneously affect each other from micro to macro scale.
In conclusion, the role of parenting style is very important for the development of children. What they get from childhood, that is what they will bring to adulthood. Be a responsible parent so that children can grow optimally. The author will conclude with a quote:
Children are like a mirror, they do what they hear and what they see. Be a good reflection for them.