Relationship Between Sleep Patterns and Child Growth

Relationship Between Sleep Patterns and Child Growth

Relationship between sleep patterns and child growth. The preschool period is for children between the ages of 3-5. The golden age that has significant and valuable value is nursery children since this time is the cornerstone for the child’s future.

Relationship Between Sleep Patterns and Child Growth
Relationship Between Sleep Patterns and Child Growth

Children have the freedom to express themselves during this time without rules which restrict and limit them. Children aged 3-5 years are the concept of pre-school children, where the infant has attained maturity in different motor functions at this period and intellectual and socio-emotional development is followed.

Furthermore, the intellectual curiosity and ability of children to search and discover the world are also important characteristics of children at this age. The kid has trouble feeding at this time.

The method of dietary adjustment in which children usually find it difficult to feed. A survival phase has been demonstrated from the exclusion process in infants and this phase is the era in which social maturity has started to display growth and the child has qualified to enter school and it seems that the capacity of the infant has not been able to judge anything dependent on what they see as it involves prior familiarity of the environment and the parents.

In each age range of 3-5 years, the length of sleep is different; in children aged 5 years, the average sleep time is 11-13 hours. When you wake up, your body uses oxygen and food (energy) for your physical and mental tasks.

A lot of adrenal hormones and corticosteroids in the body are also used in this ‘catabolic state. The reverse happens during sleep, i.e. anabolic, in which energy savings, body cell regeneration, and development occur.

The body continues to release growth hormones as the concentration of adrenaline and cortisol reduces. In addition to fighting growth, this hormone also enables the body, beginning with skin cells, blood cells, and neuron cells in the brain, to rebuild and regenerate all the cells in the body.

This cell renewal process happens quicker than waking time. This is substantial proof that sleep has an impact on growth. Sleep plays an important part in the development of the baby because of the growth hormone release process.

Moreover, sleep disturbances may also influence the immune system of infants, the regulation of hormonal systems, the metabolism of the body, the cardiovascular system, as well as the mechanisms of learning and memory. In infants, the consistency of sleep influences memory and recollection.

The consistency of the sleep of a child influences the memory and cognition of the child when studying, so it is important to attempt to schedule the right time for sleep. Children’s lack of sleep will conflict with the release of hormones, one of which is growth hormone, and the development of cells in the body such that their immune response declines.

As a consequence, kids get sick rapidly. Lack of sleep also leaves kids less vulnerable and susceptible to injuries. Sleep has a physical (obesity, control, endocrine system), cognitive capacity and activity, family (stress, depression, elderly) influence.

The immune system, learning, and memory, the digestive system, the development of the hormonal activity, the metabolism of the body, while the beneficial effect and sleep in the growth phase. For nursery groups, this often occurs. They still need more than the age group above them for sleep.

Therefore, giving kids the chance to get enough sleep is really important. For this purpose, to achieve optimum growth and progress, the environment and discipline of the schedule need not be constructed. Sleep cycles are also distinct in any preschool.

But routine sleep and waking cycles should be established within a month after the baby is born. So if the baby already does not have a regular sleep schedule at the age of 6 months, then this can be a problem as this can mean that the baby has a sleep disorder.

It is said that babies or children have trouble sleeping because they sleep less than 9 hours at night (problems with the amount of sleep), wake up more than 3 times and take more than 1 hour to wake up, weep through fussy sleep, and find it hard to sleep.

Sleep is a passive mechanism and is known in our lives as an unconscious state. Until the 1950s, this view was shared by scholars. It is now understood that brain function is very active as human beings sleep.

Changes in breathing habits, reduced minute airflow, decreased PO2 are all physiological changes during sleep. Depending on the sleep process, these modifications differ. The body clock controls the sleep and wake periods.

The clock of the body is found in the brain, in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and lasts 24 hours. Humans have a typical sleep time of 10 hours within 24 hours. The appearance of a special image in the age group of children, adults, and the elderly suggests that human sleep habits are affected by age.

There are more REM elements of morning sleep than a nap. The latest studies have shown that high REM sleep components, with low amounts of melatonin, are especially beneficial for childhood brain nutrient deficiencies.

Similarly, in adults, REM sleep is very important for emotional or psychological recovery, while non-REM sleep is more important for physical recovery, high growth hormone levels released in non-REM sleep are closely related to physical health status, while increased blood flow to the brain during REM sleep plays an important role in mental health, a brain function that helps the brain to develop

In infants, the high REM sleep portion is the way the brain activates itself, according to the theory of auto stimulation. And for the development of the central nervous system, these sensations are very important. In rising infants, this illustrates the value of sleep needs.

Brain activity remains stable at the level of deep sleep (Non-REM). Generally, at this time, without dreaming, the breathing patterns of the baby and heartbeat are normal. The Non-REM process plays an important role in the recovery of body cells and about 75 percent of the development of maximal growth hormone, which will affect the growth of children.

It should be understood that sleep is one of the children’s fundamental needs to facilitate optimum development and growth (Siswono, 2008). Sleep habits in preschool (aged 3-5 years), namely: 1. Total sleep needs to decrease to an average of 12 hours on day 2 in the second year.

Until the close of the second and third years, most preschools take naps. 3. Problems with sleep are widespread and can be caused by fear of separation. Bedtime routines and transfer items that symbolize comfort are very useful, such as covers or a collection of toys.

Factors that can impact children aged 3-5 years’ sleep cycle, namely:

a. The amount of time they need to sleep reduces as they grow older. This is influenced by cell and organ development and physiology. The need for sleep is strong in neonates since it is still in the process of transitioning to the environment of the uterus of the mother, while the degeneration of cells and organs that impair sleep roles and processes exists in the elderly.

b. Nutrient consumption There are strong dietary demands for preschool children because they are constantly on the move. Every child’s nutritional requirements are about 90 kcal/kg BW. Nutrient consumption will also influence preschool children’s habits, including their sleep cycles.

Kids, whether they are hungry or thirsty, can not sleep well. Parents must be able to pay attention to the consumption of nutrients or the intake of children to maximize the development of children.

c. Play operations provide children with opportunities to develop their mental physical, social and logical skills. Kids learn to improve empathy for potentially frustrating situations through their experiences with play.

Children learn to engage emotionally in play, practice sharing with others, improve social awareness, and learn to play an active part in making their community’s social contributions. In the play, children also learn to play their roles in group games, both gender-related and role-playing.

d. Environment The physical environment in which human sleep affects the ability to sleep and sleep substantially. For a decent night’s sleep, good ventilation is necessary. Sleep quality is affected by the scale, hardness, and location of the bed.

Sound also affects sleep, in comparison. Some people like a good night’s sleep, while others like noises like soft music, TV, and background sounds. Sleep ability can also be affected by light conditions and room temperature.

e. Cultural factors that can impact sleep may take the form of the sleeping habits of children, including rituals practiced before bed by children. An individual who normally sleeps with other people, such as his parents, will cause him to wake up if he sleeps on his own.

f. Psychological Causes Apprehension, anxiety, restlessness, and so on can be psychological factors that can influence the sleep of an infant. The child’s sleep disorders, which are expressed in the form of continuous twisting, tilting left and right, shock, delirium, can induce anxiety and restlessness.

Kids under the age of two and above sometimes restlessly sleep with dreams so that the infant will scream in terror and wake up in a state of panic. It is when you are new to the world around you that this anxiety emerges.

Any of the above variables will influence the sleep schedule of an infant, and can also affect the development phase of the child. Development is correlated with improvements in the size, number, size, or size of individual organs and cells that can be measured based on weight, length, age of the bone, and metabolic equilibrium.

As a product of contact with the environment, body cells, body tissues, organs, and organ systems are formed in such a way that each can perform its roles, including mental, intellectual, and behavioral outcomes.

Preschool children are a different category, needing more careful intervention throughout their development. If development is interrupted during this time, this will lead to disturbance in the planning for the production of quality children.

The goal of ensuring the well-being of children is to ensure that the basic needs of the child make sense, including issues of survival, development, and protection of the rights of children that are their rights (child rights), to achieve the above.

Furthermore, it also needs a healthy atmosphere for the child’s development process. The optimization of the growth and development of preschool children can be helped by healthy sleep patterns.

To build a good sleeping pattern for kids, there are several steps, including:

1. Concentrate during the day on children’s sports. If preschool kids sleep more in the morning than throughout the day, before they wake up, they build awkward conditions.

2. To create a normal sleep schedule, get used to the same routine, use the same day and night for bedtime.

3. Only give him a nap. Currently, daytime sleep is a family habit. Nap also has advantages, however, such as sleeping at night and is to regain stamina and improve the child’s growth and development process.

4. When you wake up at night, just fulfill the children’s needs as needed. When your child wakes up due to urination or thirst in the middle of the night or early in the morning, fulfill this need immediately. Put the little one to sleep after that.

Sleep is split into two large levels, which are:

1. Responsive sleep is also considered the process of rapid eye movement (REM). REM is a wave of teeth and a saw. A cholinergic pathway that can be stimulated by receptor agonists and suppressed by anticholinergics plays a role during the REM process.

Muscle atony, cortical stimulation, low voltage coordination, and fast eye movement define the REM process. The parasympathomimetic and sympathetic nerve portion is characterized by wrinkles of the skeletal muscle, increased heart rate, pupil width variability, and increased respiratory rate of small cells.

2. Deep sleep is also called the period of rapid eye movement (NREM). It is an active disorder that takes place through the oscillation between the cortex and the thalamus. Coil sleep, delta oscillation, and sluggish cortical oscillation are the three key oscillating mechanisms.

The sleep coil is characterized by NREM sleep levels arising from GABAnergic neuron hyperpolarization in the nucleus of the reticulotalamus. The projection of corticothalamus neurons is hindered by this hyperpolarization. The corticothalamus will revert to thalamus synchronization during projection scatter.

Delta waves are generated by the reticulotalamus and pyramidocortical source interaction, whereas sluggish cortical oscillations are produced by hyperpolarization and depolarization processes in neocortical tissues.

Factors linked to growth:

a. Hereditary factors Hereditary growth factors (heredity) are parent-inherited features or circumstances. Throughout life, it is eternal or immutable. Certain features such as gender, race, hair, eye color, physical development, stance, and some other psychological uniqueness are also determined by these factors.

b. Environmental factors decide whether or not natural capacity is attained. A decent enough climate, while not being good, will enable the achievement of natural ability.
They’ll block it.

This environment is a “bio-physical-psycho-social” environment that affects the human, from conception to the end of his life daily.

1. Prenatal environmental factors Paranatal environmental factors from conception to birth that influence fetal growth and development, including:

a. Maternal feeding during pregnancy Poor maternal nutrition most frequently results in LBW (low birth weight) or stillbirth before pregnancy and during pregnancy and seldom induces congenital malformations.

Moreover, it also induces fetal brain growth suppression, anemia in newborns, infection-prone newborns, abortion, and so on.

b. In newborns, mechanical trauma and amniotic fluid deficiency may cause congenital anomalies. Likewise, in talipes, hip dislocations, congenital torticollis, facial palsy, or cranial tubes, the place of the fetus in the uterus can result.

c. Toxic/chemical compounds The organogenesis cycle is a period that is very vulnerable to teratogenes. For example, congenital defects can be caused by medications such as thalidomide, phenition, methadione, anti-cancer drugs, etc.

Similarly, heavy smokers/chronic alcoholics often give birth to pregnant women with low birth weight, stillbirth, injury, or delay.

d. Somatotropin, placental hormone, thyroid hormone, insulin, and other peptides with insulin-like activity (IGF) are endocrine hormones that can play a role in fetal development.

e. Radiation Before 18 weeks of birth, radiation in the womb can lead to fetal death, brain injury, microcephaly, or other congenital malformations.

f. TORCH (Toxoplasmosis, Cytomegalovirus, Harpes Simplex) is an intrauterine infection that frequently causes congenital malformations.

Verisella, Coxsackie, Echovirus, malaria, lues, HIV, polio, measles, listriosis, influleptospira, mycoplasma, influenza virus, and hepatitis virus are other viruses that can also cause illness in the fetus. In pregnant women, it is believed that any hyperprexia may harm the fetus.

g. Fetal growth and development, including congenital malformations, mental conditions, and others may be impaired by trauma encountered by the mother during pregnancy.

h. Immunity from rhesus or incompatibility with ABO often results in miscarriage, fetal hydropathy, kernel jaundice, or stillbirth.

– Embryo anoxia Reduced maternal oxygenation due to placental or umbilical cord abnormalities, resulting in low birth weight.

– Postnatal environmental influences The transition phase from the system arranged according to the mother’s organs to the system based on the genetic capacity of the baby and homeostatic processes must be transferred by newborns.

Sleep Needs The regular pattern of sleep is more important than the number of hours of sleep itself, according to the Age of the Infant. They get enough sleep for just 5 hours a night in some individuals (Kozier, 2004).

In general, according to the sequence of the stage of human evolution, the duration or length of sleep.

1. The sleep needs of infants. Newborns require 14-18 hours of sleep a day, regular breathing, 50 percent NREM sleep for minor body movements, and are broken into 7 cycles. And sleeping 12-14 hours a day in babies, between 20-30 percent REM sleeping, sleeping later at night, and having a fast waking pattern.

2. Sleep Requirements for Infants. Young children’s needs are limited to 10-12 hours a day. Any 20-30 percent of his sleep is a lot of REM sleep. Around the age of 3 years, daytime sleepiness will go away and they sometimes wake up at night, leading them not to want to sleep at night.

Sleep concerns may arise because kids are afraid to distinguish themselves. Sleeping rituals and items that can help enhance the wellbeing of an infant, such as blankets or gift sets.

3. Sleep specifications for pre-school children, the average period of sleep is about 11-13 hours a day. It is possible to remove the habit of taking a nap if it interferes with the sleep time of the infant. Sleep for about 30-60 minutes if your child really wants a nap.

In preschool children, potential sleep disorders include nightmares, nightmares, difficulties recovering after a day of activities, sleeping too long (about 30 minutes) so that sleeping and waking up at night can be interrupted.

4. Sleep needs of school-age children The sleep needs of school-age children vary, but typically range from 8-9.5 hours a night.

School-age kids require less sleep than teens because of the sluggish development rate. Reading before bed will make sleep simpler and establish a positive rhythm of sleep.

5. To prevent fatigue and vulnerability to infection, most adolescents require between 8-10 hours of sleep each night.

At this age, sleep is 20 percent REM sleep. Sleep discharge (orgasm and ejaculation at night) is encountered in teenage youth, which we typically know as wet dreams (Potter, 2005).

It is assumed that sleep leads to physiological and psychological rehabilitation. For routine biological improvement, sleep often seems to be vital.

In children who undergo more stage 4 sleep, non-REM sleep is particularly significant, as during this cycle the body releases growth hormones to rebuild and renovate epithelial cells and especially brain cells (Potter and Perry, 2005).

These Habits Help Realize Your Children’s Big Dreams

These Habits Help Realize Your Children’s Big Dreams

These habits help realize your children’s big dreams. To make you realize your goals, follow these practices – Everybody has dreams to achieve. You have a goal that makes you have an objective to keep going and have something worth finding out.

These Habits Help Realize Your Children's Big Dreams
These Habits Help Realize Your Children’s Big Dreams

Another thing that you need to know is that yesterday was not positive. To fulfill the dreams fought for, one must strive hard, be diligent, and carry out every level.

Performing these 7 practices will profoundly fulfill your aims and help you fulfill your dreams.

1. Celebrate any Success Pillar

When you hit your target, feel free to cheer and congratulate yourself. An individual may be inspired by this strategy to step forward and approach his dreams.

You should give yourself a present or have a sumptuous meal sometimes.

It can profoundly benefit a person to get closer to his dreams and ambitions by applying the above 7 habits.

By developing skills and awareness, do not fail to encourage the fulfillment of this dream.

2. Set Goals

One must have a clear reason to make a dream come true. To set goals and pursue them, start now.

Any completed goal would profoundly help you get closer to your dreams.

Be sure there is a clear time period for any of these milestones to be reached. Start seeking fresh dreams after you have fulfilled your objectives.

3. Start Reading and Listening

Before beginning an operation, consider reading or listening to something useful every morning.

We firmly advise hearing success stories of people that have met the same goals as you.

This will give you interesting information and experiences that will inspire you and make you think more positively.

4. Get Concentration Time

Put aside and take the time to accomplish your dreams and make any dream work for you. One must have concentration and discipline when pursuing goals.

The time you set every day, do not let anyone take it.

If possible, in particular fields, you should seek education and preparation that can help you accomplish your goals effectively.

Education like this takes a lot of funding.

So what if someone doesn’t have the money to get an education?

There’s no reason to think about it since there are lending funds today that can be used.

5. Strategies of analysis and improvement

Continue to review the techniques and developments that have been made. You may have to change the priorities, require a new aim, or something else.

Keeping track of your performance and growth would provide you with insightful feedback on what works and what doesn’t.

Furthermore, whether you are on the right track or not, you can even find out.

6. Every day, take action

Whatever dream you have to accomplish, start acting every day. Train every day if you wish to be a professional football player.

Similarly, play it every day when you want to be a better guitarist.

To accomplish any dream takes ambition and hard work. You will eventually get better and better at what you are doing by taking steps every day.

Next, you’re going to know that the dream you want is going to get ever closer.

7. Workout Every 30 Minutes Every Day

You need to work out every day to keep your mind productive, imaginative, and inspired. To get a balanced body and mind, spend about 30 minutes every day.

Maximize ‘Quality Time’ With Children At Night

Maximize ‘Quality Time’ With Children At Night

Maximize ‘quality time’ with children at night. Being a working mother is not easy. It is difficult to devote 8-9 hours with kids plus time to complete household tasks and other family matters. Overall because they do not have much time to spend with their kids, there is a feeling of shame that mothers feel. Especially if you miss the child’s performance when they work.

Maximize 'Quality Time' With Children At Night
Maximize ‘Quality Time’ With Children At Night

Not alone are you. A significant percentage of mothers who are working feel the same way. As tennis player Serena Williams became a new mum, she lamented on Twitter that while preparing for Wimbledon at the time, she skipped her son’s first move.

Children’s achievements are unbelievable, but they are just a small part of the essence of life, according to Sonja Lyubomirsky, Ph.D., professor of psychology at the University of California, Riverside, and author of The How of Happiness. The most important thing, Sonja said, is that you love, nurture, and help your kids, not that you see every wonderful thing that kids do.

A major Harvard Business School report released in 2018 showed that working mothers’ children grow up like unemployed mothers’ children. “Children of working parents were asked in another study from the Families and Job Institute, “If you had only one wish that could improve your parents’ career lives that influenced your own, what would it be?

Although parents believe their kids want more time with their parents, they actually expect that while at home, their parents are not depressed and exhausted.

Really what matters is not how many minutes you waste without kids, but how content and comfortable you are with your kids and family in just a few minutes. Ok, this is a technique for creating it and optimizing kids’ quality time.

1. Give Children a contact

Daniel J. Siegel, MD, UCLA School of Medicine clinical professor and author of the book Aware: The Theory and Practice of Presence, describes that physical touch will activate the social “circuit” of the brain and generate a greater sense of belonging than oneself.

A 2018 study has shown that touching a loved one’s hands will not only decrease tension but also keep the pulse and brain waves in parallel. Therefore when they come home, giving your child a quick (or long) embrace will actually help you develop a physical connection with your child.

This applies not only to girls under the age of five but also to children and boys who are older. Sonja said that parents sometimes believe that when their son is 10 or 11 years old, they don’t want to be kissed when they really want to convey affection by direct contact or touch.

2. Before arriving there, seeking calm

It is not easy to turn from busy working to ‘disturbing’ children at home from pregnancy to parenthood, according to Kate Rope, author of the book Solid as a Mother: How to Remain Safe, Happy and Mostly) Healthy From Pregnancy to Parenthood. Parents need time after a day of work to soothe their exhausted children, too.

In between these periods, this can be resolved by slowing down, for instance, while you are on your way home. By listening to their favorite songs in the car, some parents settle down, others love shows by watching Netflix or using social media. Importantly, before joining the house, make sure you “reset” yourself from an office worker to a caring parent.

3. Take control of the gadget with you

Tools are an obstacle to building meaningful time between parents and children, according to Laurie Santos, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology at Yale University, Connecticut, USA. When alerts occur when you are with your kids, Gadget tempts you to react immediately. A Louisiana teacher recently asked students to write about a finding that they thought would never be uncovered. Four out of 21 students said that it was a tablet for their guardians.

To the full degree possible, keep the devices hidden at night before bed. In reality, activate the ‘Silent’ or ‘Aircraft’ mode if appropriate, so that family time is not disrupted by the arrival of your mobile alerts. Your personal and work life will be managed this way.

4. Love Yourself with love

On her Instagram account @rabbitholeid, Devi Raissa, a child psychologist and founder and owner of a book company called Rabbit Hole, remembers how important it is to love yourself before becoming a mom. According to him, you can embrace yourself entirely, even your flaws, because you love yourself. So you should embrace the qualities and shortcomings of children as well. This makes kids relaxed in their parents and themselves, and can give their best of themselves, which they do not know is in themselves.

When kids and parents are relaxed, when needed or wanted, quality time can be realized. You want to sit together at the dinner table for breakfast or in bed before going to bed in the evening. The standard of time with the infant would not be impeded by insufficient time. Of course, parents who love themselves would be in a position to give their children complete love.

5. Allow a ‘practice’ exceptional

This routine can be seen to be a practice that parents and kids would perform every day, an activity provided to children by special parents. Let your child pick a book for you to read with him at bedtime, for instance. On weekends or at certain hours, other things may be undertaken. For eg, at the start of each month, households have to attend a shop or run a family hobby every 2 weeks. Made sure that this practice is still consistently done.

Digital Parenting During Covid-19 Pandemic

Digital Parenting During Covid-19 Pandemic

Digital Parenting During Pandemi. Along with the development of information technology and the internet, so is learning can be done online.

Then came many terms such as e-learning, which is learning to use electronic devices. Learning done with the internet or web worldwide is called online learning or online education.

Digital Parenting During Covid-19 Pandemic
Digital Parenting During Covid-19 Pandemic

Online education connects students with subjects through the internet (Johnson and Manning, 2009: 10). Some refer to online education as cyber education or cyber space (Palloff and Pratt, 2002: 20).

Now some people use smartphones as a learning tool, it is called m-learning or mobile learning because teachers and students can move wherever they are.

Parental protection for children must be strong and disciplined, so that children’s daily behavior can be well controlled, especially when using electronic media such as the internet, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic, which conducts online-based learning or e-learning.

Continuous use of the internet for the long term will affect its users, both positive and negative effects in the future (Nugraha, 2013). If not managed wisely, this learning method can place children to always use the internet all their time.

In addition to the positive effects expected by the educational community, the emergence of adverse negative catalyst effects for children also needs to be acknowledged, identified, and addressed seriously.

The main problem with the emergence of e-learning policy is concern about the expansion and dissemination of Covid-19 in education units as the virus has grown and spread in the community.

This policy has met a clear and scientific formulation of the problem, which is based on complete, accurate, and up-to-date data as the policy was issued after observing the increasing number of Covid-19 patients in the community and observing the availability of internet access in schools.

The purpose of e-learning policy is to protect the health of schoolchildren from the threat of Covid-19 and to ensure the continuity of learning through e-learning. Therefore, all three policies have an element of purpose or fulfill a good policy because these policies have a clear purpose and objective.

Digital parenting or parenting in the digital age is very important to be understood and not done by parents but also for teachers. Such a tremendous development has enabled students who are still in the stage of concrete operations to explore and learn a variety of information faster than their teachers at school as well as their parents at home.

The speed and ease of accessing information and knowledge should be maintained and observed so that there are no irregularities, irregularities, and violations in the use of the internet, especially those related to device addiction. To overcome the addiction and tool prevention efforts, teachers and parents can implement the following steps.

Literally, parenting means a pattern of interaction between parents and children. These patterns of interaction include, how parents behave or behave when dealing with children. For example, how the attitude or behavior of parents in applying rules, teaching values ​​/ norms, giving attention and love as well as showing good attitudes and behaviors so as to be an example / role model for their children.

Advances in communication technology have influenced the views of many people on matters of daily life, including views on parents. In the past, parents still allowed their children to play outside with traditional games with other children. However, nowadays parents rely more on digital technology as a medium to play games for children.

Many parents then compete to give access to digital technology to their children and provide digital technology directly in the hands of their children. Human interactions have been replaced by interactions through digital technology and it is often unnoticed that this can reduce a person’s direct interactions with close people, for example between parents and children in their home who are busy with their devices. Although tools are not at all a child’s main need.

The sophistication and ease of operating technology enables young children to control products that are the result of technological sophistication. Technology offers convenience and diversity in the process of children learning many things.

Technology that makes it possible to present sound and visual stimuli at the same time allows children to learn many things at one time. Especially since the advent of multi-functional smartphones at affordable prices has caused more and more people to own them.

In the end, many parents have passed the technology on to their children. Without realizing it, many children are addicted to tools. This is still considered trivial by parents, as parents think that now is the digital era, the era of using gadgets.

Parents control the primary responsibility for the process of shaping the character of children. Currently there is a shift in the value of decency in society regarding correct and inappropriate terminology. At that level, the role of parents is very important to provide understanding to children as the main preparation before they enter society through school and other social interaction media.

Therefore, parental example is essential for the development of their children. This is important because in the human developmental phase, childhood is a stage to imitate the attitudes and behaviors of those around them.

Parents need to educate their children in the digital age by using the type of parenting that is relevant or appropriate to the child’s life.

Digital Parenting – Parents are expected to pay attention to the following:

  1. Child eye health. Excessive exposure to smartphone use can cause poor vision in children;
  2. Sleep problems. Child sleep problems are caused by children who are too long looking at digital screens and the effects of digital media content;
  3. Difficulty concentrating. The use of digital media has an influence on children’s attention-altering skills, resulting in increased overactive behavior and difficulty concentrating;
  4. Decreased learning achievement. Excessive use of digital media can reduce children’s learning achievement;
  5. Children often suffer from hunger, thirst and the desire to defecate, which disrupts the digestive system, which causes an imbalance of weight (too fat or too thin);
  6. Social development. A child will grow up to be a more selfish person so that it is difficult to get along directly. A child has difficulty recognizing various nuances of feeling;
  7. Brain development and its relationship with the use of digital media. Children need to pay attention to the balance of activities between playing digital media and playing in the real world;
  8. Slows down children’s language development. Research shows that the use of digital media can slow down the language development of children, especially children aged 2 years and under.

Second, parents need to support their children as the digital generation. Children talk late due to lack of training, playing alone, being too passive, watching too much TV. Therefore, parents need to provide assistance to children as a digital generation.

During Pandemi Parents can do the following for digital parenting:

  1. Parents must add knowledge. Parents will find it difficult to set proper rules for the use of digital media if they do not understand what a blog is or how to use Twitter or Facebook. Therefore, parents need to have knowledge or a brief description of digital tools or media. Parents need to take the time to look at the websites their children visit;
  2. Parents clearly instruct children to use digital media devices. If the child is exposed to digital devices, it is best to direct them with effective communication to decide how long and when they can use them. Parents and children need to agree on when to use and when to stop using digital media devices at night;
  3. Balance the time using digital media with interaction in the virtual world. Parents can balance digital media exposure by introducing real-world experiences such as leisure activities, outdoor activities, sports, interactive reading, music and movement, traditional games, etc. to children;
  4. Borrow children’s digital devices as needed. Parents provide children with digital devices such as ipads, smartphones and computers so they can learn to control themselves and learn to use them with their families;
  5. Choose a positive program / application. Parents need to identify programs / applications that are educational in nature and have a positive impact on children’s growth;
  6. Accompany and enhance interactions. Parents need to help and interact with children during the use of digital media. Parents must also accompany their children while browsing the virtual world using a digital device as well as family activities;
  7. Use digital devices wisely. Parents need to use digital devices wisely when interacting with their children. Parents who are less prudent in using digital devices become abusive or neglect their children. Parents accustomed children not to use digital devices before bed;
  8. Virtual world activities. Remote communication, reading news, viewing photos and videos are all activities in the virtual world. At this time, parents need to prepare their children to visit cyberspace;
  9. Track children’s activities in the virtual world. Parents can monitor the websites their children visit, and ensure that children do not visit websites that are not age-appropriate. Use of digital media according to the age and stage of development of children. Parents and children need an agreement on the use of digital media, not to protect children but to provide the right opportunity when children are exposed to information from the media, as parents may not always be able to monitor children’s activities.

At this stage, parents need to accompany their children according to their age and stage of development.

1. Children aged 1-3 years. Parents accompany children at the age of 1-3 years

  • has a broadcast time limit on digital media;
  • use digital media in audio form to improve vocabulary, numbers and songs;
  • use programs / applications to enhance prosocial behavior in children, such as empathy or sharing;
  • use information about different people from different backgrounds to learn to recognize diversity
  • Avoid broadcasting digital media programs that contain elements of violence and sexuality;
  • avoid broadcasting scary digital media programs, such as ghosts;
  • avoid broadcasting digital media programs that use indecent and aggressive language because children can remember and repeat it;
  • avoid advertising ads on digital media with content that is not appropriate for early age;
  • accompanying and interacting with parents / guardians while using the media;
  • Avoid using digital media and devices as “substitutes for parental roles”.

2. Children aged 4-6 years. Parents accompany children aged 4-6 with the following objectives:

  • have a collective agreement that is understood and complied with by the child, monitors its implementation, consistently applies the consequences of the violation and gives appreciation for the child’s success in implementing the agreement;
  • utilize educational programs / applications related to school readiness. For example, the introduction of letters, numbers, and basic knowledge;
  • utilize programs / applications that teach friendship and respect for differences and diversity
  • discuss the similarities and differences between children and favorite characters seen through the media, with the aim of improving the skills to distinguish between the bad and the good;
  • avoid broadcasting digital media programs full of violence and sexuality;
  • avoid digital media programs that are biased towards gender recognition and bias;
  • avoid digital media programs / broadcasts that show character solving problems by force;
  • guide children to find out which facts and fantasies.

3. Children aged 8-12 years. At this age, parents accompany children with the following objectives:

  • have an agreement that is understood and appreciated together, monitor its implementation, apply the consequences of breaches consistently and give appreciation for success in implementing the agreement;
  • make use of programs or videos that show positive experiences that stimulate the imagination;
  • discuss good and bad character behaviors in the media they know;
  • discuss matters related to the roles of men and women;
  • avoid broadcasting digital media programs that show aggressive, antisocial and other negative attitudes;
  • provide an overview of jokes about the limbs;
  • avoid excessive advertising, especially on unhealthy eating and eating patterns;
  • Avoid displaying pictures or cigarette ads.

Conclusion for digital parenting during pandemic :

Various forms of positive and effective parenting actions or parenting aim to shape the character of the child so that the child experiences a pleasant atmosphere of life. Children need to be protected from the family with positive, good and right things so that they can thrive in the next life and be able to control themselves in the face of the destructive influences of the digital era such as the addiction to tools during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Parents can adopt a wise, positive, effective, constructive and transformative parenting model or style. The main parenting style is effective parenting or effective parenting.

Parenting like this is not the only way to educate children effectively. Effective parenting is closely related to mentality and character. Parents need to practice thinking. Parenting needs to be built in the parents and trained continuously, so that the parents can be the role models that the children want. In other words, parents must be willing to apply all parenting tips to them.

If the mentality and character of the parents have been formed into an ideal parenting figure, then the parenting tip information can be easily applied to the pattern of students with children. Generally, the parenting pattern of children in the family is divided into three categories (Hurlock, 2000: 205), namely:) authoritarian parenting; (2) democratic parenting, (3) permissive parenting.

The family as one of the centra of education is the first and most important place of education for the formation of the character of children. Families as the location or place of character formation of children need to develop an educational and effective parenting style.

Parenting style between parent and child is shown in meeting the physical and psychological needs of the child. In addition, this parenting style can be implemented in the form of socialization of norms that occur in society so that children can live in harmony with their environment.

Digital Parenting Educating Children in the Digital Age

Digital Parenting Educating Children in the Digital Age

Digital parenting educating children in the digital age. Advances in technology cause disruptions in everyday life, from automation that threatens various livelihoods, to how people digest and convey information. Today, more than half of Indonesia’s population is connected to the Internet.

Digital Parenting Educating Children in the Digital Age
Digital Parenting Educating Children in the Digital Age

Internet penetration rates are rising year by year. Eric Schmidt, an engineer from Google, even predicts that by 2020 everyone in the world will be online. Unfortunately, advances in digital innovation and ease of Internet access are not accompanied by adequate quality human resources.

Like water or fire, technology can be seen as a gift and a threat. If not managed properly and not used wisely, it can be very dangerous. Therefore, we are of the view that the Digital Literacy Book Series, the collaboration of stakeholders of various sectors, is necessary to make it more public.

Although the word “child” is no stranger to our ears, in fact, many still do not know the classification of children. Several experts agree that the age of children is between 0-18 years.

In this age range, a child is in a period of development, both physically, cognitively, and morally (Poer, 2008: 58) that is not yet perfect. A child is considered to have no ability to fortify himself from the various adverse effects that surround him, including in consuming messages broadcast through various media.

This situation also makes the children of the audience most at risk of the negative effects of media use. Therefore, parents need to play a big role in protecting and educating their children to avoid negative effects

Child psychologist Jean Piaget divides the phases of child development into four stages. The baby is called the sensory phase (0-2 years) when the child begins to learn to move and recognize various physical objects. Toddler + or pre-operative phase (2-7 years) is characterized by the ability to combine and change the various information received by the senses as a concept packet.

Children are the phase of concrete operation (7-11 years). At this time children begin to learn abstract concepts such as complex emotional expressions. The adolescent phase operates formally (> 12 years). It is during adolescence that the ability to think logically, rationally, and systematically begins to develop and becomes the first sign of maturity.

Get to Know Our Children!

Erikson introduces the level of emotional development of children. He divides it into 5 phases:

1. baby (0-2 years old)

In the first phase, children learn to trust their parents and guardians, if they are neglected it becomes difficult for them to build relationships with others.

2. early childhood (2-3 years)

In the second phase, the children begin to try to control the movement and freedom of their bodies, if they succeed, independence will appear otherwise, they will feel ashamed and hesitant.

3. Pre-school (3-5 years)

In the third phase, children begin to explore their environment, if they are facilitated then they will feel the purpose, if forbidden, they feel guilty.

4. school age (6-11 years)

In the fourth phase, the school environment enables children to interact more broadly so that academic achievement determines the growth of self-confidence or inferiority.

5. and adolescents (12-18 years)

In the fifth phase, teenagers begin to build relationships with others. If they can, they will feel accepted by others if they do not succeed, they will feel lonely and alone.

Following the division of phases similar to Erik Erikson, Lawrence Kolhberg describes the level of moral development of children. Babies are not used to good and bad things, so forms of rewards and punishments are almost impossible to apply in educating them.

Early childhood is the right time to introduce positive rewards for good behavior as they begin to want to benefit themselves but they do not yet understand the negative consequences and punishments.

Furthermore, preschool time is when children strive to get to know themselves and others and want acceptance from others, usually, they are easily manipulated until moral values ​​are introduced.

As they enter school age, children begin to recognize social authority and rules, so that parents and teachers can apply strict rules. As adolescents begin to understand the social contract and the variation of moral values ​​from various groups of society, it is important to understand tolerance to prevent conflict as well as adhere to the moral values ​​taught. family and social environment as follows (Hapsari, 2017).

Identify Digital Media

Digital Media Features

If grouped based on their communication patterns, the media can be divided into two, namely conventional media and digital media.

Conventional media includes print media (newspapers, magazines, tabloids), broadcast media (radio and television), and audio-visual media. While examples of digital media such as news websites, social media, online stores, digital games, mobile phone applications, etc. The following is a comparison of the features of mass media and digital media.

The character of the above digital media has some important effects on family behavior in using the media. There are at least four issues that parents need to consider: message creator, message nature, how the message is spread, and the effect of the message.

These four things make the social environment experienced by children today different from their parents as children. Message creators, everyone can create messages so that even small children are interested in owning an account, presenting themselves, and interacting with other strangers.

This poses a threat and an opportunity. The issue of privacy and physical protection of children from foreigners is a problem that needs to be addressed by parents. On the other hand, children can gain popularity at an early age.

This phenomenon also requires special treatment because excessive attention can hurt children. The nature of digital media messaging varies as it comes from all over the world, moreover, most are not screened by professional media workers.

This makes children receive a variety of messages that most likely do not fit the religious and cultural values ​​of their families. Until chaos emerges to determine the standard norms of truth, appropriateness, and decency. Not only children, but adults can also experience this disorder of the norm.

Digital media messages are also numerous and even unlimited, so it is necessary to determine the time and importance of accessing these messages. Spreading the message, digital media service providers want to gain economic benefits so that they plan their media to be attractive.

A special mechanism is created so that digital media channels can recommend content according to user preferences based on previous usage records. Some digital media producers want to get social attention and recognition.

They want to direct users to follow their opinions on politics, religion, society, etc. Parents need to be aware and give their children an understanding of this goal. The effect of the message, if used properly, is that digital media is an infinite source of knowledge.

Users can use it to learn practical to complex things. But negative content has adverse effects also spread widely in the virtual world, such as fake news, violence, pornography, use. Users must be able to select and organize good and useful content, parents are friends of children for that.

The ease of creating, sending, and using digital media messages provides opportunities and risks to families. People cannot ignore the impact of digital media on their children so they need to develop digital preservation to protect their families.

Since digital media has become a part of family life, parents need to choose parenting methods in the digital age. A large number of parents were raised in the era of mass media, so they had difficulty dealing with digital media. Before determining the method of digital parenting, parents need to understand the characteristics of digital media.

General Principles of Digital Parenting

After understanding some forms of parenting and digital media character, parents can develop digital care for their children. There are several general principles of digital parenting: norms, technological effects, message effects, sensitive issues, behavioral examples.

Every family has different principles of norms. Every parent needs to determine the basic values ​​of his family before raising a child so that the limits of good and bad content depend on the values ​​of the family. There is no need to force yourself to accept or reject other family principles as this will only lead to unnecessary conflict.

Digital Parenting Tips

There are several actions that parents need to take in raising their children with digital media.

1. Accompanying Children

Accessing Devices Parents should always be with their children as they use digital media for two main purposes, namely negotiating access times and selecting media and channels.

Although experts recommend a maximum screen time of 2 hours a day if the activity is combined with productive or affective activities (such as communicating with family in a distant place) the duration can be flexible.

On the other hand, if parents can provide a variety of more useful activities or have important social interactions, then the time to access the device can be reduced. On the other hand, parents’ willingness to know which media and channels their children like will be very useful for building effective communication in parenting.

2. Choose Content That Is Appropriate For Children

Selection can be done with software and understanding. Parents can use the categorization or evaluation used by content providers. Some apps, such as the Play Store, for example, have special categories for families that contain child-friendly content.

Other applications such as Youtube also provide the Youtube Kids channel, make sure children only watch from those channels. But such an arrangement is not enough, because the value of each family is different, so parents need to emphasize the limits of content justice related to body appearance, violent scenes, story value, etc.

3. Understand the Information Provided by Digital Media

Understanding is done using the moral and rational framework of each family. For parents to function in education, that is, parental values ​​that are also shared by children, information obtained through digital media needs to be discussed.

There is a lot of controversial content on the internet like bloody accident reports. Such content is of course not suitable for children to watch, but if the child already has access to it, parents need to provide understanding to avoid, not spread, and anticipate its effects on children’s feelings and thoughts.

4. Analyze Digital Content to Find Positive and Negative Patterns

This discussion aims to have parents and children have an understanding of their views on phenomena outside the home. Discussions also keep children open to various points of view that may be encountered outside the home so that they do not become extreme personalities. At the same time, parents can dig corners
looking at children according to their times so that it is easy to manage them now and in the future.

5. Confirm digital media

Not every piece of information published in digital media is factual information. Verification is done to determine whether the information received is fiction or fact, true news, or false news.

The ability to verify content requires precision and patience because parents and children must be able to trace the source of information obtained and ensure its quality.

6. Evaluate Media Content

Evaluating digital media content is the final decision on the information that has gone through the process of selection, understanding, analysis, and validation.

The decisions that arise include whether this information is trustworthy and disseminated, merely sufficient for personal knowledge, or simply negligible because it is not important information.

Discussions between parents and children can be done to train children to make decisions about the information they receive and get used to criticizing the information they receive through digital media.

7. Distribute Media Content

Based on family values ​​and trends in digital media, parents and children can build an understanding of what content can be shared or not. At the same time, parents need to introduce the concept of private territory which in this digital age is often overlooked or even considered unimportant.

In short, anything that does not deserve to be shared with people in real life should also not be shared on digital media.

8. Produce Positive And Productive Content Together

Parents can direct their time to access the device for productive activities such as learning to draw, word processing, and data. If children are instructed to be producers, their time as consumers will be significantly reduced. They will also learn that the effective use of digital media will support their current and future skills and knowledge as adults.

9. Participate in productive activities related to digital media

There are currently many workshops and competitions where children can participate to practice their ability to use digital media productively. Elsewhere, parents can show digital evidence that many problems in the real world can be influenced by internet user interaction. For example, collecting donations for natural disaster victims can be done through the internet.

10. Working Together to Create Digital Content

Working together is the success of digital literacy skills. To be able to collaborate well and optimize the potential of digital media, digital literacy skills are needed starting from access to active participation.

Collaboration also means the ability to collaborate with many parties in creating useful digital content. In the field of family, collaboration can be done in a simple way, such as creating creative content that is worked on by parents and children.

Types of Parenting Related to Bullying

Types of Parenting Related to Bullying

Types of parenting related to bullying. One of the phenomena that attracts attention in the world of education today is the violence of schools committed by students.

The uprising (bullying) perpetrated by students in schools, which increasingly adorns the rows of news on the pages of print and electronic media, is proof that human values ​​have been uprooted.

Types of Parenting Related to Bullying
Types of Parenting Related to Bullying

Bullying behavior, an old phenomenon, has recently become an interesting research study in education over the last ten years, systematic research on the topic began in the 1970s and is limited to Scandinavian countries (Olweus, 2002).

Yet, within two decades, many countries (e.g., Japan, the UK, Canada, the US) began to study bullying behavior in schools. In particular, what is interesting here has been triggered by the occurrence of violence in schools around the world (Mc Everyern et. Al., 2005).

Bullying behavior is a negative action repeated by some or more students who attack because of an imbalance of power between the parties involved. Examples of bullying include teasing, spreading gossip, inciting, isolating, intimidating, threatening, bullying, shouting or physically attacking such as pushing, slapping, or hitting.

Bullying can be defined as a recurring emotional, verbal, and / or physical attack
against students and other vulnerable students who are truly unable to defend themselves because of their size and strength.

Bullying implies a power imbalance that usually occurs without provocation. Along with physical and verbal abuse, these can also include bullying, spreading rumors, theft, tripping, destruction of other people’s property, sexual harassment, danger due to sexual orientation, race, or ethnicity (Sampson, 2002).

Studies conducted in various countries show that 8-38% of students are bullied. Chronic victims of bullying, bullied once a week or more, generally make up 8-20% of the student population. A recent study in the United States found that bullying rates are higher in America than in some other countries.

13% of grade six to ten students, 10% report bullying, and about 6% fall victim (Sampson, 2002). Olweus (2002) studied 140,000 Norwegian children between the ages of 8 and 16, finding that about 15% of them were bullied.

The results of a study by bullying intervention expert Dr. Army Huneck at Yayasan Semai Jiwa Amini 2008 revealed that 10-60% of students are reported to be teased, ridiculed, ostracized, beaten, kicked or pushed at least once a week.

Riauskina (2005) in Wiyani (2012) then classifies bullying behavior into five categories, including:

  1. Direct physical contact (hitting, pushing, biting, grabbing, kicking, locking someone in a room, pinching, scratching, blackmailing, and breaking other people’s belongings).
  2. Direct verbal contact (threatening, insulting, demeaning, harassing, calling (calling names), putting up, criticizing / mocking, intimidating, slandering, and spreading gossip).
  3. Nonverbal direct behavior (looking sarcastic, sticking out tongue, showing insulting, mocking or threatening facial expressions is usually accompanied by physical or verbal bullying)
  4. Indirect nonverbal behavior (silencing someone, manipulating friendships to crack, deliberately isolating and ignoring, sending anonymous letters)
  5. Sexual harassment (sometimes categorized as physical or verbal aggressive behavior) Olweus (1994) revealed in Mc Eacern et al (2005) that bullying in schools seems to be the school climate, school policy and student supervision contribute to the frequency of bullying in schools everywhere certain schools. .

According to Dake et al. (2003) the factors influencing bullying behavior are as follows:

  • Family socioeconomic status.
  • Level of parental education.
  • Family composition (closeness / divorce / remarriage)
  • Parenting style.

Parenting is a pattern of interaction between parents and children, that is, how parents’ attitudes or behaviors when interacting with children, including how to apply rules, teach values ​​/ norms, pay attention and love and show good attitudes and behaviors so that they become role models for their children (Dariyo, 2004).

Adolescent socialization is strongly influenced by the parenting style of parents in the family, including the following:

  1. The authoritarian attitude of the parents (wanting to win alone, always controlling, all orders must be obeyed regardless of the opinion and wishes of the child) will greatly influence the development of adolescent personality. He will develop into a coward, less confident, feel worthless, so that the socialization process is disrupted.
  2. The permissive attitude of parents (all-permitted, never forbidding, always obeying the wishes of the child, always pampering) will foster an attitude of dependence and difficulty in adapting to the social environment outside the family.
  3. The attitude of parents who always compare their children will foster unhealthy competition and mutual suspicion between siblings.
  4. The attitude of parents who are ambitious and overly demanding of their children will cause the child to tend to experience frustration, fear of failure, and feel worthless.
  5. The democratic attitude of parents, will follow the existence of children as individuals and social beings, and be willing to listen and respect the opinions of children. This condition will create a balance between individual and social development, so that the child will get a healthy mental state.

Students identified as bullies were 1.65 times more likely to be seen in children from families with authoritarian parents than in participatory parenting. Punishing / overly disciplined parenting also causes children to have bullying behaviors.

Experts, both Piaget and Kohlberg agree that parents play a key role in the formation and moral development of a child. The responsibility of parents to instill moral values, ethics, manners and even religious values ​​from an early age to their children will leave an impact on their hearts and souls.

John Locke equates that the heart and brain of a child is still a blank piece of paper. The sheet is still sacred, so whatever is on the sheet depends very much on the parents how he writes, draws, draws or colors, as well as the education he has received since childhood will influence the thoughts and behaviors of the child (Dariyo, 2004) .

Hironimus Sugi of Plan International concluded that cases of violence against children in schools ranked second after violence against children in the family. In fact, if students are often victims of violence, they may have a difficult character in the future.

This will collectively have a negative impact on the life of the country (Wiyani, 2012). Child bullies have the potential and tend to be juvenile delinquents, and perpetrators of violence and trapped in criminal acts. The perpetrator of bullying will also have difficulties in social relationships and if this behavior occurs until adulthood, of course it will have a very wide impact.

Students who watch are also potentially disruptive. Consequences of bullying practices that occur at the primary school level, which can eventually lead to death. The death of this primary school student was triggered by insecurity and frustration because his schoolmates were often ridiculed as porridge boys.

Olweus’ latest research (2011) on bullying is reported as a crime in Sweden. This study aims to find out the types of parenting styles related to bullying in high school.

Another theory on educational factors is also put forward by Hibana (2002), namely that parents who have received higher education will have good knowledge in caring for their children so that they will use more democratic parenting techniques than uneducated parents and knowledge.

The educational background of parents can affect the thinking of parents, both formal and non-formal, and then also affect the aspirations or expectations of parents towards their children. Another thing that can be seen from the community of Semarang based on observations by researchers that can influence democratic parenting is the characteristics of a friendly and polite society.

Based on the researcher’s observations, students also have the characteristics of being friendly, polite and willing to cooperate in research and have good academic achievement. This can be seen from the charter-
charters obtained by students are displayed in the School living room.

experts state that violence in education can be caused by poor systems and policies in education, especially high school. Religious education plays an important role in controlling bullying behavior because religious education teaches good norms, morals and ethics.

Another thing that can be seen from the light bullying behavior committed by students in high school is the influence of democratic parenting felt by many students according to the results of the study based on the description of parenting style, as stated, one of the factors influencing adolescent behavior is old parenting style .

Based on the observations by the researchers, the students are friendly, polite and willing to cooperate in research and have good academic achievement. Descriptions of bullying behavior committed by students can be seen from the results of questionnaires that have been completed by students, that is, students will sometimes be violated by hitting or pushing if students feel threatened, students sometimes tease friends by locking them in the bathroom or room degrees, students sometimes feel jealous if a friend has something new, students sometimes like to mock a friend by calling their parents name.

The description of bullying behavior committed by students can be seen from the results of the questionnaire that has been completed by students, that is, students always fight by hitting or pushing friends if they feel threatened, students always tease friends by locking them in the bathroom or classroom, students always feel jealous when friends have new things, students always or often mock friends by calling their parents ‘names or nicknames, always or often stay away from friends if students do not like their friends, always talk about friends’ problems with other friends, always be friends and play with their friends only.

Parenting and Their Implications for Child Education

Parenting and Their Implications for Child Education

Parenting and their implications for child education. Being a developed country is certainly an ambition that every country in the world wants to achieve. It is an open secret that the progress of a country is influenced by educational factors.

So important is education, so that a developed country or not, is generally seen from education. If the results of this educational process fail, it is difficult to imagine how a country can achieve progress. For a country that wants to develop, education must be seen as a necessity as well as other needs.

Parenting and Their Implications for Child Education
Parenting and Their Implications for Child Education

Although education is very important, for some reason some so many people do not get the education they deserve.

The presence of children who drop out of school or even out of school is considered to be closely related to parents’ understanding of education, including the pattern of education applied.

The objectives of this parenting are;

  1. Describe the parents’ understanding of their children’s education.
  2. Know the patterns applied by parents in children’s education.
  3. Reveal the factors that influence the pattern of children’s education in society

The results of this study can be used as a reference/guide for parents for interest in the field of education in the context of human development that is knowledgeable, able to develop and master technology, and very competitive, based on faith and devotion to God.

Or be a policy direction and implementation plan in education. Based on grammar, parenting consists of word patterns and care. According to the General Dictionary, the word pattern means model, system, way of working, form (fixed structure), while the word babysitter means caring for, caring for, educating the children so that they can stand on their own.

According to experts, parenting is a pattern of behavior applied to children that are quite consistent over time. This pattern of behavior is felt by children, both negatively and positively. The parenting style that is instilled in each family is different, this depends on the views of each parent.

Parenting is a way for parents to act as parents to their children where they make a series of active endeavors. Meanwhile, according to the resolution of the UN General Assembly (Pamilu, 2007), the main function of the family is as a vehicle to educate, nurture and socialize children, develop the ability of all members so that they can perform their functions in society properly, and provide satisfaction and a healthy environment to achieve the goal.

Parenting is fundamental in shaping a character. An exemplary attitude from parents is essential for the development of children as children model and imitate their environment. Openness between parents and children is important to prevent children from the negative influences that exist outside the family environment.

Parents need to help children in self-discipline (Sochib, 2000). Also, filling children’s free time with positive activities to create themselves is important.

Instead, parents should be consistent and consistent in upholding the rules. If the father and mother are not united and consistent, the child will be confused and difficult to discipline.

Factors Affecting Parenting Patterns According to Hurlock (1999)

Several factors can influence parenting style, namely parental characteristics in the form of:

1. Parental personality Everyone has different levels of energy, patience, intelligence, attitude, and maturity. These characteristics will affect the ability of parents to meet the demands of the role of parents and how sensitive parents are to the needs of their children.

2. Confidence

The beliefs that parents have about parenting will affect the values ​​of parenting and will influence their behavior in caring for children.
her son.

3. Similarities with parenting style accepted by parents If parents feel that their parents have previously successfully applied parenting to their children well, they will use similar parenting techniques if they feel that the parenting style used by parents they do not fit, so parents will turn to other parenting techniques:

  • Adaptation with the consent of the group Parents with new or younger children and less experienced are more influenced by what group members (large families, communities) consider as the best method in educating children.
  • Age of parents Young parents tend to be more democratic and impatient when compared to older parents.
  • Parental education Parents who have received higher education and have attended courses in the field of parenting using authoritative parenting techniques compared to parents who have not received parenting education and training.
  • The gender of the mother generally understands the child better and they tend to be less authoritarian than the father.
  • Socioeconomic status Parents from the middle and lower classes tend to be more violent, coercive, and less tolerant than parents from the upper class.
  • The concept of the role of adult parents. Parents who maintain traditional concepts tend to be more authoritarian than parents who adopt modern concepts.
  • Gender of children Parents are generally ruder to girls than boys.
  • Age of the child The age of the child can affect the duties and expectations of the parents towards the parents.
  • Temperature Parenting applied by parents will greatly affect the child’s behavior. Children who are attractive and adaptable will be different in caring for picky and rigid children.
  • Children’s abilities Parents will differentiate the behavior that will be given to children who are endowed with children who have problems in their development.
  • Situation Children who experience fear and anxiety are usually not punished by their parents. On the other hand, if the child resists and is aggressive, there is a possibility that the parent will become a parent with an illegal pattern.

Factors Influencing Children’s Educational Patterns in Society

Parenting patterns are patterns of behavior that are applied to children and are quite consistent over time. This pattern of behavior can be felt by children, both negatively and positively. Talking about how parents educate their children, of course, can not be separated from the understanding and views of parents in educating them.

The way they educate greatly determines the personality traits of their children. The results of this study show that several factors influence the educational pattern of children, namely:

1. Socioeconomic status has a profound influence on the educational patterns applied by parents.

2. Level of Parental Education Another factor that influences the educational pattern of children is the level of parental education. The educational background of parents can influence the thinking of parents in educating their children.

3. The economic situation of the parents is low.

4. Number of Children

Parents’ attention to one or two children is certainly very different when compared to families with many children. Similarly, his attention in terms of education, especially if the family has a mediocre economy.

As the number of children in the family increases, there is a tendency that parents do not apply parenting patterns to the maximum for their children because attention and time are divided between one child and another.

5. A person’s age also affects the educational pattern of their children. Of all the informants interviewed, those under the age of 50 paid more attention to the education of their children than the informants over the age of 50.

How Parenting Style Change A Child’s Personality

How Parenting Style Change A Child’s Personality

How parenting style change a child’s personality. Being a parent is a joy in itself for married adults. To carry out the trust entrusted to us by God, which is to have children who must be properly educated and developed.

Many factors influence the formation of personality in children. According to Sigmund Freud in the theory of psychoanalysis, the development of a child’s personality is influenced by what he received during the heyday, namely the first 0-6 years of life and the ability to go through each phase of development, if a child gets a good education and care, it will produce children have a good personality like an adult.

How Parenting Style Change A Child's Personality
How Parenting Style Change A Child’s Personality

The first environment a child encounters is a family consisting of father, mother, and siblings. In interaction, a child adapts to what is seen and learned in the family. A child raised by a family with high emotional intensity will affect his emotional intelligence as he grows up.

Good care and education from the family are essential in shaping the child’s personality. The definition of family can be seen in the narrow sense, as a nuclear family which is the smallest social group of society formed based on marriage and consists of husband (father), wife (mother), and their children.

Each family has a different parenting style in educating the child and is usually passed down by the parents received from the previous parents. Parenting can be defined as a pattern of interaction between children and parents that includes the fulfillment of physical needs (such as eating, drinking, etc.) and psychological needs (such as safety, love, etc.), as well as the socialization of norms that occur in society. so that children can live in harmony with their environment (Latifah, 2011)

In other words, parenting also encompasses patterns of parent-child interaction in the context of children’s character education. So the style played by parents in developing the character of children is very important, whether authoritarian, democratic, or permissive. The form of parenting affects the formation of the child’s personality after he or she grows up.

This is because the characteristics and elements of an adult character are planted long before the seeds are planted and implanted into a person’s soul from the beginning, that is when he or she is still a child. That is, parental treatment of their children from an early age will affect their social and moral development in adulthood.

These social and moral developments will shape the character and attitudes of children in the future, although several other factors influence the formation of children’s attitudes reflected in the character they have. According to Megawangi (2003), children will grow into individuals who have character if they can grow in an environment that has character, so that the nature of each child born pure can develop optimally.

Since the child’s environment is not just a micro-family environment, all parties including family, school, mass media, the business community, etc. also influence the development of children’s character. In other words, developing the next generation with good character is the responsibility of all parties.

The importance of character building in the family can also be seen from the results of Fika and Zamroni’s study that parents educate their children’s character through good parenting, give examples of behaviors and habits, provide explanations for actions, apply high standards and realities to children, and involve children in decision making.

The results of character education in the family show that children who grow up in a complete family feel more satisfied with their love, fewer children have problems and freedom, and children become more obedient. In providing care and education to children, each family has a different parenting style from one family to another.

In the book on adolescent psychology, parenting is the attitude and way of parents in preparing younger family members including children to be able to make their own decisions and act independently until they experience a change from relying on their parents to be independent and responsible to themselves alone.

Monks et al provide an understanding of parenting as a means, i.e. fathers and mothers providing love and parenting that have a profound influence on how children view themselves and their environment. Research shows that parenting is important in providing a more complete model of behavior for children.

The role of parents in caring for children is not only important to protect the child’s mental development from negative things, but also to shape their character and personality so that they become spiritual beings who are always obedient to their religion. This paper is qualitative research that focuses on library research.

By reviewing books and manuscripts relevant to the problems raised in this study. The data source used is divided into two primary and secondary forms. Primary data is a book that serves as the main guide in the form of research on parenting styles and parenting strategies.

Meanwhile, secondary data is a book that is still considered relevant to research studies. The method of analysis used is descriptive analysis, which is used to determine the relationship between categories and others, through interpretation according to the study map guided by the problem being studied in the purpose of research, to create the construction of the theory according to the research problem (Surakhmand, 1980: 93 ).

Factors Affecting Child Development. Health and Wellness Health and well-being are some of the factors that a child must have to grow well. The psychological development of a child also depends on the physical growth and health of the child.

Malnutrition during infancy will cause the baby to not grow well and become damp. Very serious nutritional deficiencies are called marasmus and kwashiorkor. Marasmus is a serious dietary measure caused by inadequate calorie intake.

Babies with marasmus are small, thin, and look older. Kwashiorkor is a serious nutritional deficiency caused by a lack of protein. The child’s stomach and legs are swollen with water.

The disease usually appears between the ages of 1 to 3 years. Marasmus and kwashiorkor are serious problems in developing countries, with 50% of deaths under the age of 5 (UNICEF, 2003). Lack of nutrition in children such as lack of iron, vitamin, or adequate protein causes low immunity to disease.

Children who are malnourished at 3 years of age show more aggressive and hyperactive behavior at 8 years of age, have more external problems at 11 years of age, and show excessive motor behavior at 17 years of age (Liu et al., 2003). leads to the health and well-being of children such as poverty, poor health care, malnutrition, drug, and alcohol abuse.

The responsibility for the health and well-being of the child lies in the hands of parents, teachers, nurses, doctors by familiarizing the child with a healthy life. Parents are expected to instill healthy habits in their children so that they can help their children get good health and nutrition.

Meanwhile, teachers in schools are expected to have strategies in implementing a healthy lifestyle in the school environment to prevent disease outbreaks in children in the school environment. Meanwhile, doctors and nurses provide socialization to the community on how to adopt a healthy lifestyle. b. Family and Child Care Every family is a system, a unit formed by interconnected and interconnected parts.

Relationships never go one way. In a family, the interaction between family members is expected to be two-way. Santrock (2007: 157) states that bilateral interaction in the family is called helping each other, which means that each person’s behavior depends on the behavior of his previous partner.

Positive reciprocal relationships between parents and children influence the way a child behaves towards both parents. A family is a group of subsystems called generation, gender, and role. Each family member is a participant in several subsystems. According to Cox & Paly (2003) subsystems in each family affect each other either directly or indirectly.

Family members consisting of two people are called dyadic, while more than two people are called polyadic. Mother and father are the dyadic subsystems, mother and father represent the polyadic system, mother and two siblings are other polyadic systems (Santrock, 2007: 158). The results of research (Cumminghams et al, 2002) state that increased marital satisfaction can result in better parenting. well, marital relationships, childcare, and behaviors influence each other, either directly or indirectly.

The development of a child’s personality begins with the child’s interaction with his or her family. Positive acceptance, sincere love, and good parenting will shape the character of the child as the child grows up.

A child raised with comfort and love in the family will surely make the family a place to share grievances, and conversely, if a child does not find comfort in the family, he or she will find a way out of the home resulting in the child confused about identity. himself.

The family has a very important role to play in developing the child’s personality. Loving parental care and education on the values ​​of life, both religious and socio-cultural, is a conducive factor in preparing children to become healthy individuals and members of society.

Alexander A Schneiders (1960: 405) argues that the ideal family is characterized by the following characteristics: minimum disputes between parents or parents and children; there is an opportunity to express a desire; full of love; the use of moderate discipline; there are opportunities to be independent in thinking, feeling and behaving; mutual respect, respect between parents and children; parents have stable emotions; advanced in the economy; practicing moral and religious values.

If the family is unable to perform or perform these functions, it is called family dysfunction. According to Dadang Hawari (1997: 165), a child raised in a dysfunctional family will have a greater risk of growth and mental development.

Erick Erikson suggests eight stages of psychological development in a person’s life and it all depends on the experiences he or she goes through in the family. In the first year, a child must develop basic beliefs, in the second year he must develop autonomy, and in the following year, he must learn initiatives that lead to the discovery of his own identity.

A healthy family climate or the attention of loving parents is an important factor that facilitates the psychological development of the child. Personality is a series of inactive behaviors performed by individuals in dealing with received stimuli. The factors that shape a person’s personality are genetic and environmental.

Genetic factors in psychology are known as nativism theory, while environmental factors are known as empiricism theory. Environmental factors that shape a child’s personality are a group of behaviors that are accepted from childhood to adulthood. The role of the environment is very important in shaping the personality of the child.

The role of the environment in it includes the patterns and habits of parenting that are applied by parents to children from an early age. Several types of parenting styles can be applied to children and the resulting behavioral effects, namely: c. Education Children’s education is derived from the school environment, which is a formal institution that conducts guidance, teaching, and training programs to help students develop their potential, both from a moral-spiritual, intellectual, emotional, and social aspect.

According to Havighurst (1961: 5) schools have an important role or responsibility in helping students achieve their developmental tasks. Schools should strive to create a conducive climate, or conditions that can make it easier for students to achieve their developmental tasks.

The school’s efforts to facilitate the development of students will be successful if the school has created a healthy climate or environment, concerning the management and professionalism of its officers. good or develop academic achievement.

Social skills, politeness, positive attitude towards learning, low student absenteeism, and provide skills that allow students to work. Effective schools are not only characterized by the above characteristics but are also supported by the quality of teachers, both personal characteristics and competencies.

The personal characteristics and competencies of teachers greatly influence the quality of the classroom climate, the learning process in the classroom, or the relationship between teachers and students in the classroom which in turn will influence student learning success Allan C Orsnstein (1990: 549) suggests research results stating that characteristics -characteristics of effective teachers or hopefully it is classified into four-dimensional groups of teachers, namely creative characterized by imaginative behavior, easy to experiment, and original; dynamic behavior, i.e. energetic and extroverted; orderly is characterized by behavior that has goals, is good at finding ways to solve problems, and has control. Education given to children is obtained from formal education and education from parents.

In providing education, several factors influence the achievement of children’s educational success. According to Albert Schweitzer, (in Yusuf S, 2012: 47) effective education that can be given to children is as follows: first, that is modeling, where parents make themselves a model for children, parents are the first model and most important for positive children. nor is it negative.

The way children think and behave is formed from the way parents think and behave. Through modeling, a child will learn about proactive attitude, respect, and love. The second education is to make parents as mentors, where parents make themselves the first mentors for children in establishing relationships and giving deep love, both positively and negatively. Parents are the first source for the development of children’s feelings such as feeling safe, loved.

There are five ways to give love to children, namely: listening and feeling what the child feels; sharing views, knowledge, emotions, and beliefs with children; giving reinforcement, trust, appreciation, and encouragement to children; sincerely pray for the child and sacrifice to the child in terms of availability of time and serve the needs of the child.

The third education that parents need to do for their children is teaching, where parents act as teachers for their children on the basic laws of life. Parents strive to strengthen the principles of life so that they understand and apply them. The role of parents as teachers is to create “shared competence”, where children know and experience what they are doing and the reasons they exercise this right.

The development of a child’s personality is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The family has an important role in shaping the personality of the child because the family is the first madrasah in life. In the process of parenting, every parent has a different parenting style.

There are three types of parenting styles used by parents in caring for their children. The first parenting style is authoritarian parenting. This parenting style reflects the attitude of parents who are firm and tend to be discriminatory. This is characterized by the child’s pressure to comply with all parental orders and wishes, very strict control over the child’s behavior, the child does not gain parental trust, the child is often punished, if the child gets the achievement, he is rarely given praise or gifts.

The results show that children of authoritative parents have greater stress than children raised by receptive parents. The second parenting style, which is democratic parenting, this parenting has the recognition of the ability of parents, children are allowed to not always depend.

This parenting style educates and gives responsible freedom to children. By having responsible freedom, children will be able to develop their potential properly. The third parenting style is permissive parenting.

Permissive parenting allows children to act according to their wishes, parents do not give punishment and control. This parenting style is characterized by the existence of unlimited freedom for children to act according to their own will, parents never give rules and instructions to children, so that children will behave according to their own will.

The education and care of parents in shaping the personality of the child is also determined by the method chosen by the parents. There are several methods that parents can use, namely the exemplary method; nature; attention; advice, and punishment.

Authoritative parenting vs authoritarian parenting effects

Authoritative parenting vs authoritarian parenting effects

Authoritative parenting vs authoritarian parenting effects. 2020 is indeed a special year, almost all parts of the world were shocked by the arrival of a new virus called Covid-19. As of this writing, there are no signs when this virus will end.

With this incident, many new policies and regulations emerged for many people. This new life order also affects us a lot as a small part of the world, namely the family.

The calls for Stay At Home or Work From Home give us more time to pay more attention to our family. No less important here is the issue of education for our children.

Parents in general want the best for their children.

‘It is not enough to love the young; they must know that they are loved ‘- St. John Bosco

Authoritative parenting vs authoritarian parenting
Authoritative parenting vs authoritarian parenting

Most parents will ask, what is the best education for our children? Domo Parents will try to discuss all points of view of education to children in detail. We’ll start with authoritative parenting and authoritarian parenting.

Before we talk further about parenting education, we should first get to know the meaning of authoritative parenting and authoritarian parenting.

Authoritative parenting and authoritarian parenting according to experts

Diana Baumrind divides the types of parenting into three, as follows:

1. Authoritative parenting is a parenting style that shows extra tight supervision of children’s behavior, but they are also responsive, respect, and respect thoughts, feelings, and involve children in decision making.

Authoritative parenting characteristics are democratic. And this is the parenting style that is considered the best for kids.

2. Authoritarian parenting is a parenting style that limits and demands that children follow parental orders. Authoritarian parents set strict boundaries and do not provide great opportunities for children to express their opinions.

Authoritarian parents also tend to be arbitrary and undemocratic in making decisions, impose roles or views on children based on their abilities and power, and do not respect their thoughts and feelings.

3. Permissive parenting can be divided into two forms, namely:

Permissive-indulgent parenting is a parenting style in which parents are very involved in the child’s life but set a few limits or control over them.

Permissive-indulgent parenting is associated with a lack of self-control, as permissive-indulgent parents tend to let their children do whatever they want.

As a result, children never learn to control their behavior and always expect all their wishes to be obeyed.

Permissive-indifferent parenting, which is a parenting style in which parents are not very involved in the child’s life. Children raised by permissive-indifferent parents tend to lack self-confidence, poor self-control, and low self-esteem.

From the explanation above, I will summarize the differences, the effects received by children from Authoritative parenting and Authoritarian parenting.

Authoritative parenting vs Authoritarian parenting
Authoritative parenting
Authoritarian parenting
1. Confidence Suspicious
2. High self-esteem Self-esteem decreases
3. Obey the rules Rebel
4. Enthusiastic Emotional

Of the many existing parenting styles, the author is more likely to talk about authoritative parenting styles, because authoritative parenting has a strong positive impact on children’s academics. This is a strong reason (for me) to discuss it earlier than other parenting styles.

Opinions of experts related to authoritative parenting with children’s learning achievement:

– Authoritative parenting is a form of parenting treatment that is highly correlated with children’s learning achievement (Nyarko, 2011).

Knollman and Wild (2007) state that the achievement of student achievement is largely determined by the presence of parental support (I think all agree with this opinion). This support includes the involvement and motivation of parents in helping the learning process.

Hurlock (2009) parents must be able to provide appropriate treatment by children’s development so that children can perceive the care given to them well so that they can motivate their learning.

The effects of authoritative parenting with children’s education are; the more authoritative parenting practices that are accepted by students, the students have high learning achievement.

Likewise, on the other hand, if non-authoritative parenting practices are accepted by students, learning achievement is also low.

Pros and cons between authoritative parenting and authoritarian parenting.

Pros of Authoritarian Parenting

As we already know, the character of parents in educating children with authoritarian parenting will provide assertiveness in every command or rule without any resistance. However, this is not always bad if we want to look at it from a different perspective.

There are positive effects of authoritarian parenting

1. Obey the rules

This kind of parenting tends to form a pattern for children to always obey the rules, no matter what. They will lose the limits of an authority figure, they will always feel at peace doing what they are told. Not infrequently this is a matter of pride.

2. On the track

Because it is black and white, so there is a clear boundary between the orders and the sanctions of what they will make. It is highly unlikely that these children with authoritarian parenting will get off track.

3. Goal-oriented

Children raised in authoritarian families will be very goal-focused. Rigid rules are formed by parents for a purpose so that the atmosphere that is formed is productivity and success. They are well aware of the consequences, so there is only a goal of success in carrying them out.

Like two sides of a coin, authoritarian parenting also creates contra. These two sides of the pros and cons will always accompany everything, including the problem of authoritarian parenting.

Cons Authoritarian Parenting

Many studies have revealed that one of the effects of authoritarian parenting is “depression and anxiety”.

Its black and white, firm, and rigid nature will put more burden on the child in carrying it out. Children will lose space to argue, comment, or even ask questions.

1. Suspicious

Because all lines of command are on parental authority, when children encounter a situation that has no guidelines, they will tend to be unsure of what they will do.

2. Decreased self-esteem

Decreased self-esteem is caused by the impact of children losing their natural choices and abilities to develop their potential.

3. Rebels

What triggers a rebellious nature is “boredom,” where every day is stuffed with a list of commands that have clear consequences. And if it is not realized that it lasts a long time in our teaching patterns as parents, then the children will start to oppose us. This is bad to happen, which will have a negative impact and even harm them.

4. Emotional

Emotional tends to the accumulation of the negative effects of authoritarian parenting which I described above. All these impacts are manifested in an expression, namely; Emotional.

Pros of Authoritative Parenting

1. Confidence

Returning to the pattern of education, with good communication, freedom, and space to ask questions, argue, and comment on children to become more confident. Democracy in the family provides a good understanding of the consideration of every decision that is made.

2. High self-esteem

Children with authoritative parenting have the freedom to explore themselves, there is space to express and develop their potential.

3. Obey the rules

Obeying the rules for children accidentally will manifest from an early age. Because the best teachers are parents, and children pay attention to them from an early age. Parents teach their children well by practicing it on themselves first.

4. Enthusiastic

[For me] this is the opposite of the emotional effects of authoritarian parenting. Children do not feel burdened to do, have free space to express themselves. This positive vibration will encourage children to be enthusiastic about everything.

Cons of Authoritative Parenting

Most of the experts, especially from the psychologists state that this Authoritative parenting style is indeed the best. So it is difficult to find gaps in the shortcomings of this upbringing.

It’s natural for children in the growth phase to be rebellious, emotional, apathetic … it’s all-natural. And we as parents sometimes see it from our point of view with all our expectations.

All the best things in our dreams, we try to convey to children. These things that differentiate between authoritative parenting and authoritarian parenting. Wise parents will consider the psychological impact/effect on children if they are forced.

To convey it intact to children is not as easy as what I wrote above, everyone needs patience. As parents, we still want the best for our children, so there is no stopping to do what’s best for our children.

References :

1. Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. J. Early Adolesc. 11, 56–95. doi: 10.1177/0272431691111004

2. Baumrind, D. (2005). Patterns of parental authority and adolescent autonomy. New Dir. Child Adolesc. Dev. 2005, 61–69. doi: 10.1002/cd.128

3. Nyarko, K. (2011). Parental school involvement: The case of Ghana. Journal of Emerging Trends in Education Research and Policy Studies, 2(5), 378-381.

4. Quality of parental support and students’ emotions during homework: Moderating effects of students’
motivational orientations.

Please download the PDF version

Complete Parenting Time Guidelines For Kids

Complete Parenting Time Guidelines For Kids

Complete parenting time guidelines. Every parent has different activities, even because they are too busy sometimes to remember trivial things. An example that we often encounter, a company leader is always followed by his assistant and secretary. They are the ones in charge of keeping track of all schedules and promises from BOSS.

Returning to parenting children, of course, we also have to have our guidelines for them. One easy step you can take is, take notes.

History wouldn’t be heard without good recording, and we humans who have so many limitations are not wrong to have a personal assistant.

Easy steps are with the help of widely available applications such as AnyDo, Sticky Notes, and others. This note will sync with your email and wherever you are, whenever you note it will always accompany.

Complete Parenting Time Guidelines For Kids
Complete Parenting Time Guidelines For Kids

What are the important points in each of these notes? Domo Parenting will conclude the Parenting Guidelines which are divided into;

  • Technical parenting guidelines
  • Parental responsibilities
  • Parenting time guidelines
  • Goals of parenting time guidelines

Before entering the Parenting Guidelines material, we as parents must first know what are the basic needs of children.

Here are the basic needs of children that you need to pay attention to.

A. Convention on the rights of the child according to Unicef.

  1. Non-discrimination
  2. The best interests of the child
  3. Right to life; life sustainability; and developments
  4. Respect for children’s opinions

B. Quality factors for child development

Domo Parenting divides the quality factors of child development into 3 parts;

1. Physical-Biological Needs

These physical-biological needs include the need for clothing, food, shelter, such as nutrition, immunization, body and environmental hygiene, clothing, health services/examinations, and medication, sports, playing, and resting.

2. Love and emotional needs

Since still in the womb, the child must get enough love from his parents. To ensure the physical and mental development of the child as well as the child’s psychosocial, children and parents must have strong emotional and affectionate bonds.

Believe it or not, the attitude or behavior of parents since they are still in the womb has a very big influence on the emotions between the two.

Often we hear the benefits of listening to songs to children during pregnancy, including;

  1. Develop learning and behavioral skills
  2. Helping babies sleep
  3. Improve the reflexes of the newborn
  4. Improve baby’s sense of hearing ability

3. Need for stimulation

The children’s sensory, motor, social-emotional, speech, cognitive, independent, creativity, leadership, moral and spiritual abilities must be stimulated from an early age. This is important for early detection or screening in children. From early childhood stimulation, we can find out which sensory weaknesses and which are prominent in children.

With early screening, we can determine the best steps forward for the child. This kind of parenting is found in authoritative parenting.

Parents need to adopt democratic parenting, develop emotional intelligence, independence, creativity, cooperation, leadership, and children’s moral-spirituality.

After we know the basic needs of children, now is the time for us to get to know more about parenting guidelines, see the following description;

Technical Parenting Guidelines (generally, not age bound)

1. Communications


Communication between children and parents must be maintained in every moment (open, positive, and often), not to restrain but as a form of attention as an expression of affection for children. Important things in communication between children and parents that must be maintained are;

  • Important things that children must know from their parents are; their home and work addresses, telephone numbers, and email addresses.
  • Personal communication without interference from outsiders.
  • Reasonable telephone access from parents to their children.
  • Parents and children have the right to communicate privately by e-mail and fax, and by card, letter, and package, without interference from others.
  • Emergency notification, whenever a child travels outside the area including the travel itinerary date, destination, and place where the traveling child or parent can be reached, or the name and phone number of a third person available who knows where the child or parent is it might be.

Parental responsibilities in the Parenting Guidelines

Some of the following things are the responsibility of parents to their children.

  1. Transportation
  2. Clothing
  3. Privacy
  4. Residence

Parenting Time Guidelines

Child; 3 years and older

Educating Toddlers According to WHO Guidelines

– Sleeping time

Guidelines for educating children, WHO says not to be rigid with the division of sleep time.

Hours of sleep for babies under 3 months of age;

It’s recommended to get a quality sleep time of 14 to 17 hams a day, including naps.

Hours of sleep for ages 4 to 11 months;

It is recommended that you get 12 to 16 hours of quality sleep.


– Physical activity

Increasing the age of toddlers, the sleeping hours will decrease, especially for babies aged 1 year. Toddlers aged 1 to 2 years are advised to sleep approximately 11 to 14 hours a day, this is often called quality sleep time for children aged 1 to 2 years.

The best physical activity for children aged 1 to 2 years is to invite them to play in the park. Or let children play with toys at home. The recommended time for this physical activity is 3 hours.

– Accompany While Playing

For parents, they must be familiar with educational toys, besides that, pay close attention to the materials for making these toys. Especially toys made of plastic material, this material has a special standard which has been regulated in ISO 8124 Part 1: 2018:Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties“.

WHO recommends for children aged 1 to 2 years, with screentime of 1 hour a day. Screentime applies not only to gadgets but also to TVs and PC screens.

– Prohibits the use of digital media

Guidelines for how to educate toddlers with physical exercise, hours of sleep, and screen time is also supported by Dr. Jennifer Shu of the America Academy of Pediatrics.

According to him, the guidelines are very “to the point” and by current developments. The American Academy of Pediatrics has also published related screentime. In its publication, AAP recommends prohibiting the use of digital media for children under 2 years of age.

What are the goals of parenting time guidelines?

  • Ensuring the health and safety of children
  • Prepares children for life as productive adults
  • Introducing cultural values
  • Success is determined by a healthy and quality relationship between parent and child

Adapted from Encyclopedia of Psychology, APA

Hopefully, this article on complete parenting time guidelines can be useful for many people.

References :

  1. Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties”. (
  2. Encyclopedia of Psychology (